The Old Coach Road

by David EP Dennis BA (Hons) FCIPD LCGI RAF

This essay is part of the overall History of Combe Valley. The Old Coach Road enabled commerce between Crowhurst and Bulverhythe in East Sussex, England. It has a fascinating history.

Postcard from Wikimedia Commons

In 1756, soldiers were dying, crammed together in the Black Hole of Calcutta. We were at war with France and a massive hurricane struck England. It was a tumultuous year, with George II on the throne and Thomas Pelham-Holles, First Duke of Newcastle about to resign as Prime Minister.

Another Pelham, Colonel Thomas Pelham, the owner of Crowhurst Park was in a bad mood. Some miserable person – an estate tenant no less, called Polhill had ruined his beautiful coach road by carting in bad weather. Pelham had built the road at his own expense just for the locals and now the local ‘peasants’ were wrecking it. He was furious, and wrote to a Mr Collier on 20th May 1756:

‘I am concerned to hear that my private road is almost as bad as the highway, which is very hard – when ’tis chiefly for you gentlemen in the neighbourhood.’

As you can see from this modern photo, not much has changed – the winter weather makes for a muddy morass.

So where was the Old Coach Road and what was it really for?

It started at the Roman Iron Ore mine and Bloomery at Beauport, then found a course along Telham Ridge to Crowhurst Park, down to Upper Wilting Farm and on across the fields right through the middle of Monkham Wood, until it reached the Combe Haven river at a place called Coach Bridge.

Here it crossed over the Combe Haven, and went straight up the hill to Pebsham Farm, down to St Mary’s Church ruins and on to Bulverhythe.

Here’s a section of the modern path from Upper Wilting Farm but the Old Coach Road runs along the hedges on the horizon to the left of this picture.

Shortly after this point things degenerate into the famous morass again.

You can imagine that this Coach Road was used by all the local people – those who worked on Pelham’s estates and those who worked at local communities such as Bexle (Bexhill), Pepplesham (Pebsham), Filsham, Worsham and Bulverhith (Bulverhythe), the ancient harbour of Domesday Bullington that has mostly fallen into the sea due to great storms and coastal erosion.

This was not a mail coach service, but more of a horse and trap or carting service, because at Bulverhythe and Bexhill large quantities of chalk were unloaded from the cliffs at Eastbourne. Beachy Head was being mined for chalk. The chalk was then turned into lime in furnace kilns and spread on the fields to increase crop yields.

The Wagons may have looked like this:

Both images: Wikimedia Commons

When Hasting Area Archaeological Research Group (HAARG) first began to examine Colonel Pelham’s carting road they thought there might be a Roman road underneath it. It turned out to be entirely an 18th century estate road – but it may have followed an earlier pathway to the coast because a broach pin dating to 1400 AD was found by the side of the road.

In the 1700s, the Combe Haven River (formerly the Asten) was tidal to Pebsham (Pepplesham) – at Coach Bridge and Filsham (where the SSSI reed beds are now). There was a landing quay at Coach Bridge where, when the tides were right, goods could be put on boats and taken to Bulverhythe.

As well as chalk for the lime kilns, the type of goods moved by these boats were: cattle being brought to summer pasture on the main marshes, the carting of wood for charcoal and home fires – and dare we say it – smuggling!

You could a take a boat to Bulverhythe or stay on board and row to Bo-peep, as the Combe Haven had two outflows back then. Nowadays one of them is blocked by Ravenside Retail Park and the other by sluice gates. The land was owned by ancient families – the Pelhams, Papillons, Worshams, Peppleshams and the likes – mostly farming landowners who were also into politics.

So what did these people look like? Well here’s one of the Pelhams:

Henry Pelham by John Shackleton – Wikimedia Commons

Crowhurst Park History says: ‘The much coveted symbol of the park is the Pelham Buckle, said to have been awarded to John de Pelham for his part in the capture of King John of France at the Battle of Poitiers in 1356. The buckle first appeared on the coat of arms of the Earl of Chichester, originally known as Baron Pelham of Stanmer. The Pelicans which also feature on the coat of arms are a play on the name ‘Pelham’ and the buckles which adorn the coat of arms are said to represent those of the surrendered sword of King John.’

You had to have plenty money to employ people to build a road like this. It seems it was built for heavy use, with turf in the centre and gravel on the outsides and with sandstone curbs. The road had a good camber and the depth of construction was 70cms in four layers.

So where was it built?: Here’s an overview of the road marked in red:

This map with a red line of the Old Coach Road is based on a map of 1813, so not many years after it was built. Nowadays you can walk some sections and not others. For example, the Old Coach Road went straight up the hill from the Coach Bridge Quay (at Waypoints 54, 5, 6 to 58 of the Combe Valley map), so right over where the Tip is now and straight over to Pebsham Lake. So the path we walk now from the top of the Tip down the slope to Pebsham Lake is around 100 ft lower than the Old Coach Road, but when it gets to the latch gate at Pebsham Lane and then goes down to the back of the Bexhill Road Garden Centre – that is part of the Old Coach Road at Waypoints 45 to 44 of the Combe Valley map.

Also, the cut through to the river from the Tip Path (that some of us call ‘Dragonfly Alley) is also part of the Old Coach Road and Coach Bridge is right there. In days gone by, if the tide was right, you could have stepped off the Quay and you could have got onto a boat with your cargo of wood and sailed or rowed to Bulverhythe near St Mary’s Chapel.

For a broader view in relations to Bexhill – see this map:

Back then…maybe more birds singing in the trees – a carter whistling away, quiet landscapes of dragonfly willows and heron reeds, the clip-clop of horses, but the insects would have been mostly the same. So let us treasure what we have – and don’t upset the cart!

Happy Days.

All photographs by David E P Dennis BA (Hons) FCIPD LCGI RAF except where stated. Copyright 2021

Friends of Combe Valley Newsletter No. 3

Spring is on its way – but the wildlife has already sprung a surprise!

Here are two new additions to the the 3,000 other species in the Valley – Egyptian Geese and a White Stork.

Egyptian Goose – Alopochen aegyptiacus
White Stork – Ciconia ciconia
This White Stork has flown in from the Knepp Valley collection – West Sussex
Egyptian Geese were introduced as ornamental birds – and have now gone wild.

The number of wildfowl in the Valley reached 1,000 and 200 Shoveler Ducks (Anas Clypeata) were seen on Crowhurst Lake – a nationally significant amount. Four sea-going Scaup Ducks also landed on our fresh water flood causing Twitchers to twitch!

Local History

Friends of Combe Valley have been very busy indeed, running the Warden Service, staffing the Cafe at the Discovery Centre and reporting pollution. We have also been busy researching local history.

It seems that in the period 1932 to 1934, Sir Alan Cobham, the daring air ace, wrote to Hastings Council asking them to clear an area at Pebsham for an aerodrome to convey fruit and vegetables from France. During the preparations, a digger driver unearthed a Norman Longboat, complete with ‘Dragon’s Head’ prow. Noted historian Kathleen Tyson has pointed out that Flemish traders came to Bulverhythe Harbour in the period 1000 AD to 1100 AD and therefore the ‘Dragon’s Head’ could actually be a Dacian Wolf Head which the Flemish used when copying the Normans. You can see a Dacian Wolf Head in this image from the Bayeux Tapestry.

Bayeux Tapestry by unknown makers – Wikimedia Commons

So what happened to the Longboat? Well, the Council were alarmed that the discovery might delay the building of the aerodrome, so they told the digger driver to re-bury it. It was then reburied, it is estimated – near the join of Tier 1 and Tier 2 of Bulverhythe Recreation Ground. Pebsham aerodrome was then built on Tier 2.

Could this Tier 1 wet site at Bulverhythe be the hiding place of a Longboat?

But the story does not stop there – because firstly, some local residents claim that when Tier 1 floods in winter, the Norman Longboat eerily rises up – its prow can be seen – and then as the spring weather arrives so it sinks back down. To make matters even more complicated, an avid local historian claims that the Longboat was buried under a concrete raft in the car park of the Waterworks near the A259. Plainly if this is true it cannot ‘rise up’. So Friends of Combe Valley asked the County Archaeologist, Neil Griffin, about the best way to preserve it. He replied that Hastings Borough Council would need their permission to build more than 10 houses on the site and so if planning goes ahead for the 192 homes, then a full desk and onsite check has to be made by the ESCC County staff. No planning application has yet been made. Nevertheless, Bulverhythe was an early medieval harbour with tidal fish traps so there may be several heritage boats to be found.

Sad Story of a Spitfire CrashUpper Wilting – Monkham Wood

We are coming soon to the Victory In Europe Commemoration on 8th May 2020 – VE Day – and we all have seen films showing the sacrifice that so many made to keep us free. During the Battle of Britain, we lost a young pilot who was shot down near Upper Wilting Farm. Here’s the story but with a request to be careful when walking there:

Walkers are reminded that the area of Monkham Wood and Monkham Mead next to Upper Wilting Farm, Crowhurst is sensitive as it is the location of the World War II fatal crash site of a Spitfire shot down by a Nazi fighter on 30th October 1940 at midday. The aircraft was flown by Pilot Officer A. E. Davies. It is legally protected by the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986 and the crash site is monitored by the Ministry of Defence Business Services Joint Casualty and Compassionate Centre, Innsworth House, Gloucester. Full details of this and many other World War II incidents, including fighter and bomber crashes and V1 rocket attacks in the Valley vicinity will be published in the next Friends of Combe Valley charity newsletter. VE Day 75th anniversary is on 8th May 2020.

More background to this incident: A member of the Hastings Area Archaeological Research Group found the following report of wartime memories:

‘Mrs Pelling remembers life as a child at Wilting (called Wilton on 1813 maps) during the war years of the 1940s when air raids were common and almost every farm in the area had its own war incident. In the case of Wilting, a plane crashed at the southern end of Monkham Mead about October 1940 during the Battle of Britain.

The crash was witnessed by many people in the Crowhurst area and although the remains of the aircraft were removed by an Aircraft Historical Society, it has left its mark – a shallow depression.

Spitfire – Wikimedia Commons

Not surprising after this distance of time – not all the recollections tally exactly but it seems that the aircraft, a Spitfire, was shot down by cannon fire from German fighter one Wednesday morning.

The pilot was seen trying to get out of the plane as it fell but was killed by the impact of the crash. The plane itself fell apart during the descent and one of the wings fell off into Hollington Park.

Mr G Drew who lived nearby was one of the first on the scene and pulled the pilot’s body from the stricken aircraft and wrapped it in sacking.

Later the poor man’s family came from Coventry to collect the remains, while the authorities collected some pieces of the Spitfire.’

Visit of the Deputy Chief Constable – Jo Shiner

Will Kemp, DCC Jo Shiner and some friends walking their dogs

On 10th January 2020, we were honoured to receive a visit to Combe Valley by DCC Jo Shiner of Sussex Police. She met the Wardens, saw Upper Wilting Farm and the Greenway and Crowhurst Lake. It was a fine sunny day and so lots of walkers were out with their dogs and she and her staff officer Police Sergeant Martyn Waterson were able to stop and chat.

David Dennis, Will Kemp, PCSO Daryl Holter and DCC Jo Shiner

Also accompanying us was PCSO Daryl Holter, the Sussex Heritage and Wildlife Crime officer. We discussed the vandalism and motorcycle theft and burning taking place in the Valley but also the wonderful opportunity to strengthen community metal health by getting people to know and walk in the Valley.

DCC Jo Shiner talks to a budding police officer – maybe!

Crowhurst Footpath

Every winter the section of the 1066 Trail from Crowhurst Cricket Ground near the Plough pub to the open fields and Crowhurst Lake, becomes a morass of mud – and more recently two parts of it began to slip down into the Powdermill Stream, causing someone to fall into the brambles.

Mud, mud – inglorious mud!

Previously, East Sussex County Council had explained that since they had over 2,000 miles of footpaths (the same distance as the roads in East Sussex), they could not afford to repair the very muddy section. However, now that ESCC footpath engineers have studied the path, they agree that action IS required. So, as soon as the path dries sufficiently, then temporary repairs will be made – and then in 2021-2022 financial year, the whole path will be properly and safely repaired.

Natural winter-flooding at Three Bridges on the 1066 Trail in Combe Valley

They did also point out that the 1066 Trail is not part of the national trail network – although it does connect to it – but is in fact a path devised by Rother District Council. In the longer term it may be possible to build a bund across the Valley to permit walkers to cross the Combe Haven in winter. At present the crossover points at Three Bridges are deep in the flood and impassable.

Redundant Power Cables

During the late Spring, Power Network UK engineers will remove the redundant electrical cables, telegraph pole and switch boxes from the Bulverhythe Path – and also the power cable that is hanging from the cliffs at Galley Hill.

The old GEC power unit now owned by Power Networks UK and to be removed soon.

Crime in the Valley

Sadly, there are people in our community who want to wreck the Valley or misuse it in a criminal way. Here are a series of photos showing you the kinds of things that are happening – fly tipping, vandalism, stolen motorbikes and other matters now under police investigation. Please can you report anything suspicious to us via the Warden contact email –

team@friendsofcombevalley.co.uk

Fly tipping at Pebsham
Fly tipping at Pebsham
Vandalism at the Discovery Centre

Cleaning Up Combe Valley

We were setting up a comprehensive clean-up campaign but Coronavirus has made life complicated – so please follow our Facebook page @CombeValley to see the latest situation. At present, volunteers are called for to help us clean up the Bulverhythe Recreation Ground area on Saturday 4th April at 10.00 ( for two hours) meeting at the Discovery Centre in Freshfields.

Stolen and burned bicycle at Bulverhythe Recreation Ground Tier 2

History and Wildlife Presentations

As soon as we know when the Coronavirus emergency has come to an end, we will be giving local history and wildlife presentations at the Discovery Centre cafe. The first presentation will be The History of Bulverhythe, followed one month later by The History of Crowhurst. Please follow our Facebook page to see when these events can go ahead. Friends of Combe Valley members may come free of charge and non-members will be asked to pay £5.00 including tea/coffee and biscuits. These presentations by David Dennis are likely to start at 7pm and last for around 1 hour to 1.5 hours The scope of the presentation will cover, the origin of the landscape, Ice Age, Stone Age, Iron Age, Roman occupation, Norman invasion, Medieval history and modern history of each area – including World War I and II. The third presentation will be a detailed look at the seasonal wildlife of our lovely Valley.

Woodland Trust Season CheckNature’s Calendar

The Woodland Trust is carrying out research into when seasons start and how much change there is due to global warming, sea level rises and other factors that might affect animals and plants. If you are the kind of naturalist who records the first sighting of a bee, or butterfly, or the dates that flowers open in Spring – then this survey is for you. Here’s the link:

https://naturescalendar.woodlandtrust.org.uk/?fbclid=IwAR3b_T115s_6wSdCeb-fc-oX1RKs5EpumKP5Mat03pwNDzvAKK9fgVSrOJw

Goodbye for now – and thanks

Thanks for reading this newsletter and supporting our charity which is dedicated to the preservation of landscape, wildlife and education of the public. The next newsletter will give more details of our schools tree-planting and wildlife education programme – and two new websites we are developing.

All the very best to all of you – and please stay safe.

David E P Dennis LCGI RAF

Trustee, Fundraiser and Warden Co-ordinator

team@friendsofcombevalley.co.uk

Unless otherwise stated under a photo – all images are copyright of David E P Dennis 2020

Friends of Combe Valley Newsletter No. 2

AGM

The first Annual General Meeting of the Friends of Combe Valley national charity 1163581 is to take place on Friday December 13th at 18.30 hours in the Discovery Centre, Freshfields Road, Bexhill TN38 8AY

Discovery Centre Cafe, Freshfields Road, Bexhill, TN38 8AY – Free Parking

All members are invited. Voting will take place for the election of the Chair and Trustees. A number of organisations with interest in or responsibility for the Combe Valley Countryside Park, have been invited by letter.

Valley Familiarisation tour for Rother DC Chair

Chair of Rother District Council – Counsellor Terry Byrne visiting Pebsham Lake

The Chair of Rother District Council, Cllr Terry Byrne accompanied me on a tour of Combe Valley on Thursday 5th December. We visited Pebsham Lake, Upper Wilting Farm, the 1066 Trail at Crowhurst and viewed the locations of Little Bog and Decoy Lakes and Adams Farm.

Warden Service

I attended a meeting at the Police and Crime Commissioner’s office in Lewes on Monday 2nd December. I gave a briefing on the Warden Service and met many people who shared our interest in preserving wildlife and landscape and helping the public to be safe. I also met a group patrolling the South Downs National Park on horseback, a group helping people with sight impairment or blindness to receive newsletters by sound recording and another group who were working on a re-wilding project with schools in Hastings. The Police and Crime Commissioner talked to us all and a reporter from the Brighton Argus interviewed us. The meeting was videoed. FoCV thank the PCC and Chief Constable for the £2,500.00 donated to help us keep Combe Valley users safe and wildlife protected.

Warden Service equipment

Part of the police and PCC funding can be used for the purchase of equipment to remove dangerous items such as bags, barrels, shopping trolleys, tins and fly tipping rubbish from valley locations, some of which are difficult to reach. Long telescopic poles (of up to 24 feet) with claw grabber ends are being purchased. We hope now that a major clear-up of the Valley will begin. Wardens will also be issued with waders and first aid kits. A Lone Worker health & safety policy is being established.

Website

Natural annual flooding – the view from the 1066 Trail crossing point at ‘Three Bridges’

It has been difficult for people wanting to become new members or to support our efforts to join or donate. FoCV will be setting up a website with information on our activities and also a payments page for membership and donations, using PayPal and the bank BACS system. Data Protection laws will be implemented in full.

Projects

Following a conversation with FoCV members at a meeting last month, I have been discussing a landscaping and re-wilding project with Rother DC Chair and a senior planner. The concept is finding favour and will be further reported on in subsequent newsletters. The next stage is to identify the landowner(s) – that is now underway. The following stage will be to submit the detailed plan with diagrams to the CIC for approval by Cllr Ruby Cox and the CIC contracted management organisation – Groundwork and to the landowner, if it is not Rother DC.

The project will be aimed at volunteers and schools who would like to help to plant trees and shrubs, to develop reed beds in two new lakes, to make a woodland trail feature and sow wild flowers suitable for pollinators. New habitats for butterflies, insects and birds will be developed with specialist advice from Sussex Wildlife Trust. The proposed project sites will be the area surrounding the Discovery Centre and the edges of the woodland at Tier 2 of Bulverhythe Recreation Ground. The existing sports field and facilities will not be affected. The projects will be funded by grants from organisations supporting tree planting and wildlife enhancement.

Crowhurst flooding

You can see from the two pictures above that the Powdermill Stream has burst its banks on occasions and Environment Agency Flood Warnings have been posted for Crowhurst Village three times in the last month (Nov).

I have been to see the Crowhurst Environmental group for 2.5 hours of detailed discussions to elicit their view of the Park development and preservation of wildlife areas and the natural winter-flood landscape. The Crowhurst group wish there to be minimal interference with the ‘wildness’ of the landscape and are not in favour or ‘urbanisation’ into some sort of beautified parkland. During the meeting it was plain that Crowhurst residents have great concerns about flooding. They explained that they were worried that if the Tier 1 housing estate flood plain management scheme went ahead, it would make it even more likely that Crowhurst cricket ground and local housing would become flooded again. This is because the Powdermill stream is slow to drain away, as it has little gradient and the Greenway edges do not prevent the stream from bursting its banks, as can be seen in the photos. No member of the Ambiental flood consultants or any member of Hastings Borough Council has yet been to reassure the Crowhurst Environmental Group or the local residents of Crowhurst.

Flood plain building meeting

There is to be a meeting with Hastings Borough Council on 13th January 2020 at which group representatives from FoCV, Bulverhythe Protectors and Hastings Urban Design Group and others will be invited to put their point of view.  However, it will not be possible for any group to see or comment on the final plans of the flood remediation scheme as they have not been completed. Therefore we do not know where the earth or concrete banks or bunds are to be located, nor we do we know where the balancing lakes and non-return valves are to be placed. However, if the plan is refused by the Environment Agency or by the Secretary of State for the Environment upon Appeal, then what could the Tier 1 site look like? Here is the original concept diagram when HBC pledged to keep a ‘green space’ between Bexhill and St Leonards.

CIC and Groundwork meeting

There is to be a joint meeting of FoCV, the CIC and Groundwork on 21st January 2020 at the Discovery Centre at which the initial overview of the Park development plan will be discussed. More details and timing will be published in the next newsletter.

Seaside clean-up

We hope to organise beach clean-up sessions covering the long shoreline inside the Countryside Park boundary. We will be calling for volunteers.

The CIC and Groundwork have direct responsibility for a very big shoreline (see map below).

Dog waste-powered streetlamps!

It is now possible to buy machines that burn dog-waste and turn it into methane which then powers streetlamps. Smaller burn units might be purchased to place at the end of main footpaths so that dog-walkers could use them to burn the waste bags rather than leaving them hanging in the bushes.

Wildlife seen

Here’s a gallery selection of wildlife seen in the Valley in the past month.

Also seen were Long-tailed Tits, Buzzards, Little Egrets, Pochards, Devil’s Coach-horse beetles, Peacock butterflies and a Grebe. If you would like to report a sighting then you can log it on the board in the Discovery Centre.

Insect identification

The iridescent ground beetle (Carabidae) seen being attacked by rare types of wolf spiders at Three Bridges has been identified as…  Poecilus versicolor 

Invitation to contribute to the Newsletter

Readers of this newsletter are very welcome to submit a relevant article or a letter for publication, following moderation by the newsletter editor.

Leave a light on – security

We hope you have a wonderful Christmas and New Year – and don’t forget to leave a light on when you go out enjoying yourselves.

Kind regards

David

Rudolph in Lapland

Text and all photos copyright 2019 David E P Dennis LCGI RAF

Fundraiser Friends of Combe Valley National Charity 1163581

Friends of Combe Valley Newsletter No 1.

3rd November 2019

Combe Valley Winter Flood 27th October 2019

Introduction

Welcome to the first edition of our Valley Newsletter. I will send it out, not monthly or weekly but whenever there is something important to communicate. Please ‘like it’ so that you always get a copy whenever it is published.

Filsham Reed Beds

There is some confusion about the long term maintenance of Sussex Wildlife Trust’s (SWT) Filsham Reed Beds SSSI. Facebook has an article saying that there will be a 10-month long programme of improvements, including the removal of willow, cutting of reeds and restoring the lake in front of what used to be the bird hide but is now a wicker fence.

Filsham Reed Beds – the clogged-up lake – 15th October 2019

However, a senior executive at SWT has written to me telling me that this might not happen after all.

Here is an extract from his letter:

‘With regard to reedbed management, we do not believe a significant increase in resource or effort to create more open water would increase the ecological diversity of the site, as current habitat management is evidentially increasing ecological diversity, and as such we are confident that we have a strong ecological mandate for continued practice.

The aesthetics vs ecological benefit of open water vs reedbed is something that could continue to be communicated through interpretation including education events and literature. The focus on small-scale, sustained and sustainable effort to increase diversity within a manageable area must be set against the disadvantages of short-term capital investment that could achieve short-term visual effects, but could not be maintained over time without long-term input of extra resource and effort.’

I have written back to SWT CEO Tor Lawrence to obtain clarification of the two contrasting pieces of information. Lake or no Lake that is the question?

Solar Panels

Hastings Borough Council has been working to put solar panel farms into Hastings Country Park, and onto farmland it owns at Upper and Lower Wilting Farms. However, there is now a new development in this saga.

Before Amber Rudd MP resigned as an MP during the recent and seemingly everlasting Brexit fiasco, she wrote to the Chair of Hastings Borough Council telling him to stop putting the solar panel farm into Hastings Country Park and instead, put them on top of the Combe Valley Tip site. I managed to get hold of a copy of that letter. It explains that over 1,500 people in Hastings wrote to Amber protesting, so she took the line of least resistance and suggested the panels be dumped onto us and our Valley. However, I am told that this idea is now ‘dead’ and that Upper Wilting and Hastings Country Park are back in the frame.

Rare Creaturesand where to find them

Combe Valley is not well known nationally. It still has many areas where no close examination of the wildlife has taken place. When out walking please do report anything you find which looks unusual. You may have seen the beetle and spiders I found last week. We still don’t have a name for the beetle but we know now that the wolf spiders are fairly rare.

Valley-wide Communications

Conversations with people on the various committees and organisations have revealed the view that a better forum is needed for the Valley. At present we have FoCV, CIC, Groundwork, HBC, Rother DC, ESCC, Crowhurst Environmental, Bulverhythe Protectors, the farming and local social communities and the rural police patrols – but it would surely be better if once in a while we had a Valley-wide conference for the betterment of the Valley, its wildlife and landscape. Please let me know how you feel about it.

Footbridge at Harley Shute

When you walk up from the back of Filsham Reed Beds to Harley Shute Road, you come to a pretty poor patch of land with a gate onto the road right by the very narrow road bridge over the railway. You then have to take your life in your hands to cross over to the other side, to get onto the big metal bridge near the school. I have suggested that a footbridge be built at this point so that those walking up from the bottom of Filsham Road area near Judges Postcards can use the South Saxons path as a route to Filsham Reed Beds without being run over. The bridge would need to curve in an arc from the patch of trees to the scrub land above the Reed Bed path. A HBC counsellor is looking at the idea.

Reedswood Road Footpath

This dangerous path from the housing estate to the Filsham Reed Beds path is in a sorry state. I have asked ESCC if they will repair it but they say it is not a county path so the answer is no. It might be possible for FoCV to raise funds to repair it – but it would need some input from the people who live on the estate who use it as an access point to the Valley.

1066 Trail National Footpath

We now come to an important project – the attempt to make the 1066 Trail into a footpath that can be used by people in wheelchairs. Part of the Trail at Three Bridges is flooded. The path from Crowhurst Cricket Ground is so muddy as to be dangerous. I went to Wales to the Cors Caron National Nature Reserve to study their 40-year life weatherproof trackway (see photo). They have six kilometres of this. To put one kilometre of this track (with passing places) down for wheelchairs from Bulverhythe to Filsham Reed Beds would cost £350,000 inc VAT.

A similar cost would have to be paid for the Crowhurst to Crowhurst Lake greenway track. Ambiental were asked by me on 31 Oct if there was any reason why this track would interfere with their riverside bunds, if the housing development did go ahead – they said no, the concept of a trackway was fine.

To reach Filsham Reed Beds would require a side bridge to the existing river bridge to keep the trackway on the same level.

In the central Valley at Three Bridges the flood water gets to be three to four feet deep. Rother DC Chair Terry Byrne has suggested a stabilised Pontoon Bridge to connect Crowhurst to the southern slope. This type of bridge always stays just above the water level regardless of its depth.

So gradually the idea of connecting up the paths to enable people with disabilities to move about is taking shape. Please let me know what you think about these ideas.

Landscaping Improvements near the Discovery Centre.

The area nearer the Discovery Centre has a lot of fly tipping,

but it also has a woodland corridor with lots of insects including many ichneumon wasps.

We could plant more trees and sow wild flower meadow seeds to encourage more wildlife, especially pollinators. I am asking Rother Environment Department to help us clear away the fly-tipping rubbish (see photos). Please let me know if you would like to help me landscape this area to make it beautiful.

Fishing in the Valley

There is an absolute legal ban on fishing anywhere inside the Valley Park. Of course, if you are on the Caravan Site bank of the Combe Haven then you are not inside the park, but if you are on the Bulverhythe side then you are banned from fishing. The police have been asked to arrest anyone fishing in any lake, stream or river but they also say it is up to ESCC to put up signs telling the public that fishing is banned. Illegal fishing and the leaving of rubbish goes on at Little Bog Lake, Pebsham Lake and Crowhurst Lake (see photos).

The Combe Valley Warden

Because of the damage done in the Valley by vandals – the burning of the reed beds, the cutting of fences, smashing of bat boxes and bird hide panels, the police have begun to take a very close look at what goes on in the Valley. FoCV have been awarded £2,000 by the Police and Crime Commissioner and I have put in a bid to the Police Community Fund for another £500.00 for equipment for the Warden. PCSO Julie Pearce-Martin and PCSO Daryl Holter are the Rural and Heritage patrol officers.

The Deputy Chief Constable Jo Shiner, her PA and staff officers will be visiting the Valley in November. I am working to set up the Warden Service soon and will be letting you know how to volunteer for the post – which will be a completely volunteer post but with a small monthly allowance. A set of safety equipment will be issued to the chosen warden together with patrol area information. This is entirely a FoCV project not connected to the CIC, groundwork, Sussex Wildlife or any other organisation, so the Warden’s reports will come to us but then be shared where appropriate. The money is ring-fenced and spending will be inspected by the PCC.

Walking for physical and mental health & car parking

The police have asked me why it is that so few people are seen out walking by them when they do their Valley patrols. In a recent tour around by police, only one dog walker was seen during a 2.5 hour trip. People have commented to me that the reason few people walk the Valley trails is that there are no large car parks. The lack of car parks is being discussed by Rother DC and I hope to be able to give you some news about it soon. I also hope that soon we can start to co-ordinate some guided walks for qualified walk leaders so that they can take over and safely increase the footfall.

Tier 1 Housing Development

The anti-flood mechanism final details are not likely to be revealed until at least January and formal planning permission will be sought in the Spring – April or May we think. One puzzle is that if Ambiental put a non-return valve into the river – how will the fish that come through the valve when it is open, be able to get back upstream – they are not leaping salmon?

I am sure that a great deal more about the deeply complex plan to stop flooding on a natural flood plain will come to light over the next weeks, but HBC must remain in ‘purdah’ until after the General Election. Ambiental staff told me that This project is quite a challenge compared to our usual industrial estate flood prevention work – but we will not propose anything which will not work – as if it failed, then our reputation as a company would be ruined.’

Well, that’s the end of the First Edition. I hope you will ‘like’ and ‘follow’ this newsletter. Kind regards and all the very best. David.

Text and photos copyright 2019 David E P Dennis LCGI RAF

Fundraiser Friends of Combe Valley National Charity 1163581

Wild Goose Chase

by David EP Dennis BA (Hons) FCIPD LCGI RAF

Combe Valley in East Sussex, England is a winter-flooded landscape where many geese (Anser white and Branta black) come to parade in their flocks. So I thought it would be a good idea to have a blog post on geese – a beautiful kind of wildlife that we take a little for granted. Please let me take you on a wild goose chase!

No-one in the scientific world has yet managed to fully categorise geese. Many oddities are seen. There is a basic goose shape which is different to that of a swan or other large water bird – but there are also ‘swan geese’ and ‘domestic geese’ – and then there’s the Alopochen! (photo above).

The blue-eyed Emden Goose (below) shows the basic domestic shape. It is a pure white domesticated variety which often goes wild – and here is one that has flown to Five Lakes, near Maldon in Essex to wander about on the golf course and make the players wild too. It is moulting and has chosen to stand on the spot where swans have been moulting. Some scientists say that the difference between real geese and birds that look or behave like geese is that real geese moult at one time and season whereas some goose-like birds don’t moult at all. But this may not be the whole story.

If we look at this white bird in close-up, we can see the typical domestic squat shape – shorter body that a swan – a bulky bird with an orange-pink bill and pink legs and feet.

So here’s your first mystery. Compare the Emden with the Coscoroba Swan to see some body similarities and differences. No-one is sure if the Coscoroba is a swan or a goose.

Compare it with the Screamer – a bird that some people think is closely related to the very primitive Magpie Goose. The Screamer is not a goose – it is magnificently strange!

So where did geese come from – how have they evolved? We have seen evidence from China that some small feathered dinosaurs developed wings and over time evolved into birds. It is thought that the original ‘goose’ was a Chinese bird – perhaps evolving 10 million years ago in the Miocene period. But we cannot yet fill in the following gaps for all birds that might be geese:

The scientific classification of geese – Goose cladistics, has only managed to produce clarity in these categories:

  • Kingdom: Animalia (Animals)
  • Phylum: Chordata (Backbones)
  • Class: Aves (Birds)

Order, Family, Sub-family – not clear – even in 2019 – still lots to do!

Wikipedia tells us that: The three living genera of true geese are: Anser, white/grey geese, including the greylag goose, and and all domestic geese; Chen – white geese (often included in Anser); and Branta, black geese, such as the Canada Goose. However, some ‘geese’ are similar in appearance to shelducks and the Magpie Goose (below) is so ancient that it predates most geese.

So there really is a confusion and more research is needed. The cladistic study of geese is not complete by any means. I have put a chart at the bottom of the article to help you see how things are developing scientifically.

One type that does look a bit like a shelduck is the Egyptian Goose (Alopochen aegypticus). Still with pink legs and a squat body holding the typical ‘goose’ shape.

Here’s a shelduck for comparison…and a slideshow below

So what is the connection between a Shelduck and these Egyptian Geese in the slide-show below?

All ducks, geese and swans belong to the family Anatidae. But the Egyptian Goose is all by itself in the Alopochen family – the other birds in this family are all extinct. It looks like a Tadorna shelduck but it is not a shelduck and also not a goose at all! That is why this article is entitled Wild Goose Chase – because investigation are still going on into its DNA, which appears to have some very primitive elements in bird development. In England we have called it a ‘goose’ because it looks and acts bit like one – but instead it might be a duck! No-one is sure!

What other exotic-looking geese are there? Well here’s a beautiful one – the Bar-Headed Goose – it is pretty obvious why it has that name.

Another goose – the Canada, is very well defined and very widespread.

Canada Goose honking in Combe Valley, East Sussex, England.

A goose with beautiful and unusual neck markings – the Brant or Brent, is seen here in the sea off the coast of Bosham in West Sussex.

The Greylag Goose (below) comes to Combe Valley in great numbers – and 80 of these geese have been seen taking off at once on February mornings from Crowhurst Lake. These geese forage and nest in the Valley.

Comparison of a Greylag Goose with a Swan – with Canada Goose in the background.

Greylag – A successful breeding family in Combe Valley

Slideshow – Greylags flying and honking

So it is time to try an analyse what we know and what we don’t. Here’s my best shot at the types of geese that we are sure of, and the types of birds that look or behave like geese that we are not sure of. Is anyone reading this capable of resolving the mysteries still remaining?

Geese Analysis: (Anatidae – Swans, Geese and Ducks) (Recently extinct or prehistoric fossils of early geese types not listed.)

(1) True Wild Geese – White – Anser

  • Bean Goose (Anser fabalis) subspecies: (Anser fabalis rossicus)
  • Tundra Bean Goose (Anser serrirostris)
  • Middendorf’s Bean Goose (Anser Middendorf)
  • Pink-footed Goose (Anser brachyrhynchus)
  • White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons) subspecies: (Anser albifrons flavirostris)
  • Lesser white-fronted Goose (Anser erythropus)
  • Greylag Goose (Anser anser)
  • Snow Goose (Anser caerulescens)
  • Emperor Goose (Anser canagicus)
  • Ross’s Goose (Anser rossii)

2. True Wild Geese – Black – Branta

  • Canada Goose (Branta canadensis)
  • Barnacle Goose (Branta leucopsis)
  • Brent or Brant Goose (Branta bernicla) subspecies: Branta bernicla hrota and Branta bernicla nigricans
  • Red-breasted Goose ( Branta ruficollis)
  • Nene Hawaiian Goose (Branta sanvicensis)
  • Cackling Goose (Branta hutchinsii)

3. Not Wild Geese at all: Called a goose but not really a goose!

  • Egyptian Goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) – might be a shelduck
  • Magpie Goose (Anseranas semipalmata) – too primitive to know what it is really
  • Cape Barren Goose (Cereopsis novaehollandiae) – might be a swan or a shelduck or goose
  • Orinoco Goose (Neochen jubata) – probably a shelduck
  • South American Sheldgoose (Chloephaga) – probably a shelduck
  • Spur-winged Goose (Plectropterus gambensis) – related to shelducks
  • Blue-winged Goose (Cyanochen cyanopterus) – might a goose, a shelduck or a dabbling duck
  • Pigmy Goose (Nettapus) – linked to Cape Barren and Spur-winged ‘goose’ types
  • Solan Goose (Morus bassanus ) – really a gannet

4. Domestic Geese (Anser anser domesticus)

 and Hybrid types = most descended from the Greylag or Swan Goose

  • Canada + Greylag cross-breed
  • Domestic Emden
  • Toulouse Goose
  • Swan Goose-type domestic

A huge list of domestically cross-bred geese including Fighting Geese can be see here:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_goose_breeds

I am not a goose genius. If you have any information that shows that progress in final identification has been made, please let me know. Please follows this blog for more on wildlife. Kind regards. David

Photography in this article: All photos copyrighted by David Dennis except Magpie Goose image – Djambalawa at English Wikipedia.

Copyright 2021 David EP Dennis BA (Hons) FCIPD LCGI RAF

Combe Valley Warden

Combe Valley Countryside Park is a nationally and locally undervalued heritage resource containing almost 1500 acres of wildlife habitats, including woods, meadows, marshes, lakes and pools, willow carr, reed beds and beachlands – and 2,500 known wild and plant-life types/species – but much is still to be discovered. It is winter-flooded – adding to the richness and complexity of the landscape. It has a proven archaeological history covering 10,000 years.

Friends of Combe Valley (FoCV) is a national charity – number 1163581. It has a Board of Trustees – Peter, Rebecca and Will. I (David) raise funds for the charity and have been delighted to have been awarded £2,000.00 by the Police and Crime Commissioner for Sussex from the Community Safety Fund for a warden service.

An ideal warden

A woman or man who has time to spare, who loves Combe Valley and knows its paths and ways. Ideally someone retired who can go out on short or long walks without a regular pattern – in all weathers and seasons – and report back to the Trustees and the Friends of Combe Valley Facebook page (@CombeValley) on a range of factors covering the areas listed below and – receive a small amount of pocket money each month (perhaps £100.00 or more) for doing so:

  • Vandalism and graffiti
  • Fallen trees and flood-risk to walkers
  • State and safety of paths, bridges and boardwalk decking
  • Wildlife and habitats including bat & bird boxes and seaside
  • Schools liaison
  • Farmer communication and livestock safety issues
  • Fly tipping, pollution and environmental damage
  • Preservation of local heritage.

The person chosen by the Trustees will need to be fit, carry a fully-charged mobile phone with phone camera, a first aid kit, water and torch, be DBS cleared to work with children and be first aid trained (current certificate) to cover emergencies when walkers are found in distress. They will need a basic understanding of mental incapacity in case they are called to support police seeking lost persons who may be ill. They will also need to have full awareness of tidal dangers and quicksand areas on the Park beach frontage.

The warden will be expected to liaise with the Sussex Police Heritage and Wildlife Officer and can expect to be interviewed periodically by the staff of the Police and Crime Commissioner who will be checking on how the grant is being spent. They will also liaise with the Countryside Park Community Interest Company (CIC). This is an independent body not connected to our charity.

Both the Friends of Combe Valley and the Police and Crime Commissioner will give full publicity to the warden service.

Frequency of dates and times of patrolling will not be given to the public for obvious reasons. All paths and locations will be covered but known problem areas will be visited more frequently.

Filsham Reed Beds (above) and Combe Haven river winter flooding (below)

The Friends of Combe Valley Charity Committee will meet shortly to discuss the detailed operation of the scheme and to decide how applications for the warden role may be made to the Trustees. Further details will be published here in the blog.

Please ‘Follow’ the blog to receive updates. Please also comment on the general concept, especially if you think of something that needs protecting that is not included in the above list of patrol factors. Thank you.

Friends of Combe Valley National Charity works to preserve wildlife, landscape and local heritage and to educate the public.

All photographs copyright David Dennis 2019

The Heron – A superintelligent messenger

by David EP Dennis BA (Hons) FCIPD LCGI RAF

Once upon a time when I was younger, I was walking near Force Jump Waterfall in the Kentmere Valley over in the eastern Lake District. A grey heron glided into a marshy field and began to look for frogs. It was the first time I had been so close to this bird. Then it died. It just fell down in a collapsed heap. Obviously, I was dismayed – hand to mouth. It raises questions about the deaths of large birds. Not many people ever see a large bird die a natural death. Maybe a ghillie in the Scottish Highlands might see a naturally dead eagle once in a lifetime, or a walker might find a dead Great White Egret in the Somerset Marshes, but to be there when one dies on the spot – that is a very rare event.

This eerie occurrence gave me the impetus to study the heron in life and in myth. Here are some things I’ve learned about this graceful and fascinating bird with a wingspan of 6.5 feet, only a few inches less than a Golden Eagle.

Grey Herons (Ardea cinerea) are in the family Ardeidae which includes egrets and bitterns.  ‘Ardea’ in Latin means ‘heron’ and ‘cinerea’ means ‘resembling ashes’. They eat fish, frogs, rats and all sorts of other food. They ‘operate’ on the seashore as well an inland. They sit in the tops of trees, stalking through marshes, often standing and staring for many minutes before striking their prey.

They have invaded urban civilisation, flying over the rooftops of housing estates in Worcester Park, London for example, or sitting on the roof of a caravan at Chichester Harbour. They are becoming like foxes in their integration with human society.

Watts, George Frederic; The Wounded Heron; Watts Gallery; http://www.artuk.org/artworks/the-wounded-heron-13235

Over the past 4,000 years, herons have been hunted by humans for food, feathers and sadly, also for sport. The painting above, The Wounded Heron by George Frederic Watts, 1837 (Watts Gallery) is in the public domain.

In Combe Valley, East Sussex, where I do much of my wildlife photography, there are many herons. It is a rare day, rain or shine, when you don’t see one. In our winter-flooded valley you can see six at once all patrolling the pools and lake margins. So what are the legends behind the reality? Are there any herons in literature or Greek myths for example? Well, certainly there is one in Shakespeare’s Hamlet – it is called a ‘handsaw’! Shakespeare causes Hamlet to say in line 1460:

‘I am but mad north-north-west. When the wind is southerly I know a hawk from a handsaw.’

And yes, there on page 158 of the Penguin edition of the Iliad, the goddess Pallas Athene (Roman equivalent = Minerva) sends a heron to guide the Greeks on the right path at night – Odysseus and his men could not see the heron but heard its cry in the dark. Then Odysseus praised Athene for saving him for her ‘special love’. Because Athena is the goddess of wisdom then the heron became to be known as a very wise messenger – a superintelligence.  So next time you think you are watching a heron, remember that it may also be watching you, and perhaps reading your thoughts.

Those of you who love Dartmoor will be pleased to see this internet page dedicated to the Dartmoor heronry: http://www.legendarydartmoor.co.uk/heron_moor.htm

A heronry is a colony of perches and nests – we have one in the tall trees near the end of the old Bexhill to Crowhurst railway viaduct site not far from Three Bridges and the 1066 Trail…here:

The Grey Heron lays a clutch of 4 to 5 eggs in one brood per year between January and May. Obviously because our valley floods in winter, this site is ideal for them being right at the side of the greatest flood section of the Combe Haven river – ready for plenty of common and marsh frogs in spring. Herons use the bridge handrails and perches to stare down into the Combe Haven in the early morning.

In Japan, the heron is thought of as representing calmness, determination and above all – patience. It is a solitary bird, in the sense that it does not regularly flock-feed like an ibis or avocet, but slowly stalks – attracting other hungry herons who may join it at random. Juveniles have spotted necks and no crest feathers, and their heads are pale grey rather than the black of the adult bird. Their beaks are black but turn to orange daggers as they grow.

Herons are masters of aerial flight, retracting their necks and hunching up in flight but using their huge wings to brake when landing in the marshes. When the heron looks down into a pool it must be able to see and therefore recognise itself. I have never seen a heron try to eat its own reflection. Its cry – for us and Odysseus too, is said to sound like ‘fraink’ followed by a rattle and a croak.

In China, the heron is seen as a good luck wish – ‘May your Path be Always Upward’ and white herons helped souls to get to heaven. In Egypt, the heron becomes the world creator – the Bennu Bird, Lord of the Jubilees, linked by rebirth to the Phoenix legends of Herodotus.

So we should be pleased and proud to live near so many herons and I am sure you all get great satisfaction from the peaceful observation of this superintelligent messenger as it hunts the doomed frogs of Combe Valley.

Copyright 2021 David EP Dennis BA (Hons) FCIPD LCGI RAF

Red Kite in Sight – Sheer Delight

By David EP Dennis BA (Hons) FCIPD LCGI RAF

If you love Wales and are interested in poetry, you may have heard of the early Welsh poet Dafydd-ap-Gwilym. He flourished from around 1320 to 1370 AD. He was born at Brogynin and died probably from the Black Death.

He is said to be buried in Strata Florida Abbey in West Wales although in the 1600s, another place 20 miles away, tried to claim his body.

Many years ago, my wife and I set out to find Strata Florida Abbey and see his grave, as his poetry was so beautiful – and also fun – because much of it was about chasing girls. We drove up from Bexhill towards Shrewsbury and then travelled into Wales on narrow winding roads – across mid-Wales, and as we did so we saw our very first Red Kite. These lovely birds nearly became extinct. They were hunted to death because they were scavengers. A small set of breeding pairs remained in this remote part of Wales. Then they were introduced into other parts of Britain – for example, the Grizedale Forest.

Now you can see Red Kites (Milvus milvus) in Combe Valley. The last sighting was 6 June 2019, so I am told by someone who lives near the Valley. I have seen three flying in circles above Three Bridges on the 1066 Trail a few months ago (2020). The RSPB state that there are so many that they cannot be counted in population surveys. The UK is the only country where the population is increasing. In some countries they have been reduced by 50% or more.

However, If you travel up the M40 to Oxford Services you will see them on many parts of the route in Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire and when you get to the service area to park they will probably be scavenging in the bins.

It has to be said that the fact that we have buzzards, kestrels, marsh harriers, hobbies, sparrowhawks and hunting owls as well as Red Kites in the Valley is a great sign that these animals at the top of the food chain can all find enough to eat.

So what do they eat? The answer is just about anything edible: mice, voles, shrews, rabbits, weasels, mink, young hares, fox and badger carcasses, earthworms and your sandwiches! So please try to find out when watching them, what sorts of foodstuffs they have in their beaks. We don’t often see any voles or shrews when walking. There is a population of weasels in Fore Wood, Crowhurst but they have not yet spread to the Valley.

Red Kites bond for life and start breeding at around two years old or slightly younger. They make their nests in the forks of big trees and lay between one and three eggs. So please also look out for possible breeding nests – or let us know if you think they come into the Valley from elsewhere.

Red Kites are very capable of aerobatics. They are lighter and more manouevrable than a harrier. The RSPB have reported frequent groups of ten hunting and up to 40 feeding naturally. On some Welsh farms, they feed the birds each day and hundreds can be seen circling and landing.

It is an exciting time in Combe Valley, with all sorts of new wildlife discoveries. Pete Hunnisett and Combe Valley Nature colleagues are doing an outstanding job of tracking down a wide variety of plants and insects and I am doing my best, too. The results we find show that the Valley is pretty healthy – but there is some fly tipping and the Combe Haven river is in a poor state in parts being blocked by fallen trees and rubbish. It could be a lot healthier and the better it is as a river so the more wildlife it can support and then hopefully more Red Kites and other creatures will be able to feed successfully.

The 25,000 breeding pairs to be seen in Europe at present represents 95% of the total world population. If we could start to see breeding pairs in our Valley, we’d be delighted but maybe the other raptors would not be!

I watched a pair of wheeling crows attacking a buzzard over the ‘Tip’ area last Thursday. The crows won – so too much competition is not good when food is scarce. Please keep a sharp eye out for these lovely Red Kites and drop me a line if you see one – photos? Even better!

One of Dafydd’s poems is about the wind – but it could equally be about the Red Kite – here’s the last verse of the Poem ‘Wind’:

Go up high, see the one who’s white,
Go down below, sky’s favorite.
Go to Morfudd Llwyd the fair,
Come back safe, wealth of the air.

kind regards

David

Keeping track of local raptor sightings in Combe Valley

Last sighting 6 June 2019

Previous photos – long range telephoto – 22 May 2018

Copyright 2021 David EP Dennis BA (Hons) FCIPD LCGI RAF

Noah’s Local Flood!

COMBE VALLEY FLOODING – WILL IT END IN TEARS?

a blog essay by David Dennis

Will global warming and rising sea levels cause a flooding disaster in Combe Valley?  This sounds like an apocalyptic caption for a far-fetched film. What could possibly go wrong? Let us peer into the future and see what the legacy of mismanaging nature is bringing our way.

In April 2002 the UKCIP02 Scientific Report called Climate Change Scenarios for the United Kingdom was published.  It explained that the planet was getting warmer, that as a consequence of this heating (molecular vibration and spacing) the sea was expanding and rising. With an overheated energetic atmosphere causing storm surges with greater power and frequency, coastal flooding was more likely around the world.

Now our government has produced this latest report which sets out the flooding containment strategy:

https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/663885/Future_of_the_sea_-_sea_level_rise.pdf

The melting of sea ice north and south makes very little difference but the melting of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets is the danger. Add to this the increasing turbulence of the atmosphere and the storm surges that weather systems produce, and it can be seen that coastal, estuary and land drainage problems will increase. Sea level rise estimates vary wildly from a few centimetres to one metre within a lifetime. In addition to storm surges there are annual tidal fluctuations. If a storm surge coincided with spring tides for example, then rivers would back up and land would be flooded a long way inland, especially if rainfall had been high and river gradients are shallow – remember Somerset in 2014, for example.

Our part of England has been slowly sinking over thousands of years and many coastal harbours and marshes have been formed.  Pagham Harbour and Selsey Bill, the Cuckmere, Eastbourne and Pevensey Marshes and the Combe Haven valley are all shown as being flood-prone on the national flood maps set out by DEFRA on the internet for all to see.

Rainfall intensity in our Bexhill-Hastings-Battle-Crowhurst area is greatest in October to January with total rainfall for those 4 months in the Combe Valley being 15 inches (384mm). The ground becomes saturated and water tables are high. Since there is no regional strategy to help farmers to control run-off from fields, the water in the Combe Valley accumulates, much to the delight of wildlife observers, lovers of marshes, reed-beds and waterfowl.

But this huge volume of Combe Haven water with its Watermill and Powdermill tributaries has to get to the sea. To do this the Haven has to flow past Combe Haven Caravan Park part of which is built on its flood-plain, it then flows between Bexhill Road and Bulverhythe Road to the sluice and the sea pipe just before Bo-Peep.

The sluice can only be opened to let the water out to the sea when the tide is low enough.  Here lies the problem because the number of hours available for the sluice to be opened will depend on the height of the tide – and the tides are rising by a known amount.

In the last 100 years the sea in Sussex has risen by 10cms. Due to planetary warming, the Sussex sea level is expected to rise by 55 cms by 2080 or 85mm per year.

As the Sussex climate changes with drier summers and wetter winters, the plants and animals will be affected. Some winters may be so wet as to kill off some types of life and some summers may be so dry as to kill the roots of plants and trees in the natural environment.

In Combe Valley, the growing intensity of the rainfall within a short duration and the rising sea levels closing the sluices will leave Combe Haven Caravan Park managers to build higher and higher barriers to save their flood plain caravans.  As they do so, understandably protecting their commercial interests, the flooding of the Bexhill playing fields and homes backing onto it will get worse since the water in their kitchens would have been lower if the flood fencing had not been so high.

So what to do? Do we ask the Caravan Park owners to remove their caravans and free up the flood plain expansion point, or tell the people of Bexhill Road to move?  Is there a third or even a fourth alternative?

Pumping the Combe Haven excess flooding at a very fast rate during low tide times will cost money but it is obvious that a powerful pump could keep water levels lower than they are now despite rising sea levels. Powerful pumps cost money. There is little government money available for such engineering, but Hastings Borough Council is looking at loaning money (£6 million?) to pay for such pumps so that they can build a housing estate on Bexhill Recreation Ground.

A fourth alternative would be to ask the farmers to plant more trees and cut more ditches to slow the run-off of rainwater. But harsh strategies such as turning the Combe Valley into a permanent lake or reservoir would just mean the total loss of all farmland and the Haven is not suitable for building a dam in any case as the valley has such a broad front. Using the part-natural choke point between the hill made by the now closed tip and the hill slope of the caravan site would mean the total removal of the caravan site – and in any case the water would flow out through Pebsham and Sidley and the stream at Crowhurst would back up, flooding the cricket ground. At the end of the last Ice Age, Combe Valley was tidal to Filsham Reed Beds and so it would become again. A salt marsh would develop similar to that planned for the Cuckmere which has had its flood defences removed.

So pumping seems to be the short-term answer with the money for this found from private sources perhaps.

How long have we got before disaster strikes? The forecast for Pagham Harbour and East Head nature reserve at Chichester is that the next big storm surge will destroy these two landmarks permanently. Along the Bexhill coast to Hastings, there are clear signs of concern as the beach is supported by rocks to save the railway and the Fairlight cliffs topple into the sea on live TV. Even the wavecut platform of sandstone rocks and the petrified forest at Bexhill are collapsing, with huge pieces breaking off – never seen before in my lifetime.

I am personally convinced about global warming. I have walked on the Greenland icecap and seen its erosion and lived on and mapped the retreating glaciers of the Okstind range in north Norway, so I can safely say that Nature is coming to get us. When you sleep on a glacier, the night is silent but by noon to 3pm the whole surface is melting – thundering and roaring down through cavities to lubricate the underneath and make the glacial ice flow faster to the sea. If the Greenland icecap melted totally the sea would rise by a small amount, but – as the UKCIP02 Scientific Report states, if the whole West Antarctic ice-sheet melted the sea would rise by 5 metres and Bexhill would be taken over by fishes.

As a conservative estimate, the government is looking at a range of a few centimetres to 2.5 metres for Britain. So a local debate is required. There will be more winter rain, higher tides and more storm surges for sure. What shall we do about it?  Shall we continue to build homes along the coast? Your comments are welcome.

I will publish some of them in my blog – maybe in shortened form but without personal names unless you say not to in your replies to this blog essay.

Kind regards to all

David